Information and communications technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. Traditional and conventional approaches to the design, implementation, and validation of ICT systems typically deal with one core system concern or two system concerns at a time, for example, the functional correctness or reliability of an enterprise system, or security and privacy of a database. Additional aspects are often addressed by a separate engineering activity. 

This separation of concerns has led to system engineering practices that are not designed to reflect, detect, or manage the interdependencies of such aspects, for example, the interplay between security and safety in modern car electronics, or between security, privacy, and reliability in connected medical devices. Current trends and innovation in ICT, however, suggest a convergence of disciplines and risk domains in order to deal effectively and predictively with such interdependencies. But due to the inherent complexity of such interdependencies and the dynamic operational environments, identification and mitigation of composite risks in systems remains a challenge. 

The environment that requires risk management and mitigation be a central and integral part of engineering methods for future ICT systems. To address the requirements of the modern computing environment, we need a new approach to risk, where risk modeling is included in design as its integral part. In this chapter, we identify some of the key challenges and issues that a vision of risk engineering brings to current engineering practice; notably, issues of risk composition, the multidisciplinary nature of risk, the design, development, and use of risk metrics, and the need for an extensible risk language. The chapter provides an initial view on the foundational mechanisms we need to build in order to support the vision of risk engineering: risk ontology, risk modeling and composition, and risk language.

ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing. Among the goals of IC technologies, tools and systems is to improve the way humans create, process and share data or information with each other.

What Is Marketing?

Marketing refers to the activities a company undertakes to promote the buying or selling of its products or services. Marketing includes advertising and allows businesses to sell products and services to consumers, other businesses, and organizations.

Professionals who work in a corporation's marketing and promotion departments seek to get the attention of key potential audiences through advertising. Promotions are targeted to certain audiences and may involve celebrity endorsements, catchy phrases or slogans, memorable packaging or graphic designs, and overall media exposure.


  • Marketing refers to all activities a company does to promote and sell products or services to consumers.
  • Marketing makes use of the "marketing mix," also known as the four Ps—product, price, place, and promotion.
  • Marketing used to be centered around traditional marketing techniques including television, radio, mail, and word-of-mouth strategies.
  • Though traditional marketing is still prevalent, digital marketing now allows companies to engage in newsletter, social media, affiliate, and content marketing strategies.
  • At its core, marketing seeks to take a product or service, identify its ideal customers, and draw the customers' attention to the product or service available.

Understanding Marketing

Marketing as a discipline involves all the actions a company undertakes to draw in customers and maintain relationships with them. Networking with potential or past clients is part of the work too and may include writing thank you emails, playing golf with prospective clients, returning calls and emails quickly, and meeting with clients for coffee or a meal.

At its most basic level, marketing seeks to match a company's products and services to customers who want access to those products. Matching products to customers ultimately ensures profitability.

Formal Definition:

"Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. "
—Official definition from the American Marketing Association, approved 2017.1

What Are the 4 P's of Marketing?

Product, price, place, and promotion are the Four Ps of marketing. The Four Ps collectively make up the essential mix a company needs to market a product or service. Neil Borden popularized the idea of the marketing mix and the concept of the Four Ps in the 1950s.


Product refers to an item or items the business plans to offer to customers. The product should seek to fulfill an absence in the market or fulfill consumer demand for a greater amount of a product already available. Before they can prepare an appropriate campaign, marketers need to understand what product is being sold, how it stands out from its competitors, whether the product can also be paired with a secondary product or product line, and whether there are substitute products in the market.


Price refers to how much the company will sell the product for. When establishing a price, companies must consider the unit cost price, marketing costs, and distribution expenses. Companies must also consider the price of competing products in the marketplace and whether their proposed price point is sufficient to represent a reasonable alternative for consumers.


Place refers to the distribution of the product. Key considerations include whether the company will sell the product through a physical storefront, online, or through both distribution channels. When it's sold in a storefront, what kind of physical product placement does it get? When it's sold online, what kind of digital product placement does it get?


Promotion, the fourth P, is the integrated marketing communications campaign. Promotion includes a variety of activities such as advertising, selling, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing, sponsorship, and guerrilla marketing.

Promotions vary depending on what stage of the product life cycle the product is in. Marketers understand that consumers associate a product’s price and distribution with its quality, and they take this into account when devising the overall marketing strategy.

Marketing refers to any activities undertaken by a company to promote the buying or selling of a service. If there is a limited quantity of a product, a company may market itself in an attempt to be better positioned as one of the few who get to buy something.

Types of Marketing Strategies

Marketing is comprised of an incredibly broad and diverse set of strategies. The industry continues to evolve, and the strategies below may be better suited for some companies over others.

Traditional Marketing Strategies

Before technology and the Internet, traditional marketing was the primary way companies would market their goods to customers. The main types of traditional marketing strategies include:

  • Outdoor Marketing: This entails public displays of advertising external to a consumer's house. This includes billboards, printed advertisements on benches, sticker wraps on vehicles, or advertisements on public transit.
  • Print Marketing: This entails small, easily printed content that is easy to replicate. Traditionally, companies often mass-produced printed materials, as the printed content was the same for all customers. Today, more flexibility in printing processes means that materials can be differentiated.
  • Direct MarketingThis entails specific content delivered to potential customers. Some print marketing content could be mailed. Otherwise, direct marketing mediums could include coupons, vouchers for free goods, or pamphlets.
  • Electronic Marketing: This entails the use of TV and radio for advertising. Through short bursts of digital content, a company can convey information to a customer through visual or auditory media that may grab a viewer's attention better than a printed form.
  • Event Marketing: This entails attempting to gather potential customers at a specific location for the opportunity to speak with them about products or demonstrate products. This includes conferences, trade shows, seminars, roadshows, or private events.

Digital Marketing

The marketing industry has been forever changed with the introduction of digital marketing. From the early days of pop-up ads to targeted placements based on viewing history, there are now innovative ways companies can reach customers through digital marketing.

  • Search Engine Marketing: This entails companies attempting to increase search traffic through two ways. First, companies can pay search engines for placement on result pages. Second, companies can emphasize search engine optimization (SEO) techniques to organically place high on search results.
  • E-mail Marketing: This entails companies obtaining customer or potential customer e-mail addresses and distributing messages or newsletters. These messages can include coupons, discount opportunities, or advance notice of upcoming sales.
  • Social Media Marketing: This entails building an online presence on specific social media platforms. Like search engine marketing, companies can place paid advertisements to bypass algorithms and obtain a higher chance of being seen by viewers. Otherwise, a company can attempt to organically grow by posting content, interacting with followers, or uploading media like photos and videos.
  • Affiliate Marketing: This entails using third-party advertising to drive customer interest. Often, an affiliate that will get a commission from a sale will do affiliate marketing as the third party is incentivized to drive a sale for a good that is not their own original product.
  • Content Marketing: This entails creating content, whether eBooks, infographics, video seminars, or other downloadable content. The goal is to create a product (often free) to share information about a product, obtain customer information, and encourage customers to continue with the company beyond the content.

In 1978, Gary Thuerk sent a message to roughly 400 people using ARPANET, the first public packet-switched computer network. With that message, the first ever recorded spam e-mail message had been sent.2

What Are the Benefits of Marketing?

Well-defined marketing strategies can benefit a company in several ways. It may be challenging to develop the right strategy or execute the plan; when done well, marketing can yield the following results:

  • Audience Generation. Marketing allows a company to target specific people it believes will benefit from its product or service. Sometimes, people know they have the need. Other times, they don't realize it. Marketing enables a company to connect with a cohort of people that fit the demographic of whom the company aims to serve.
  • Inward Education. Marketing is useful for collecting information to be processed internally to drive success. For example, consider market research that finds a certain product is primarily purchased by women aged 18 to 34 years old. By collecting this information, a company can better understand how to cater to this demographic, drive sales, and be more efficient with resources.
  • Outward Education. Marketing can also be used to communicate with the world what your company does, what products you sell, and how your company can enrich the lives of others. Campaigns can be educational, informing those outside of your company why they need your product. In addition, marketing campaigns let a company introduce itself, its history, its owners, and its motivation for being the company it is.
  • Brand Creation. Marketing allows for a company to take an offensive approach to creating a brand. Instead of a customer shaping their opinion of a company based on their interactions, a company can preemptively engage a customer with specific content or media to drive certain emotions or reactions. This allows a company to shape its image before the customer has ever interacted with its products.
  • Long-lasting. Marketing campaigns done right can have a long-lasting impact on customers. Consider Poppin' Fresh, also known as the Pillsbury Doughboy. First appearing in 1965, the mascot has helped create a long-lasting, warm, friendly brand for Pillsbury.3
  • Financial Performance. The ultimate goal and benefit of marketing are to drive sales. When relationships with customers are stronger, well-defined, and positive, customers are more likely to engage in sales. When marketing is done right, customers turn to your company, and you gain a competitive advantage over your competitors. Even if both products are exactly the same, marketing can create that competitive advantage for why a client picks you over someone else.

According to MarTech, a digital marketing provider, the world will spend $4.7 trillion on marketing by 2025. This estimate includes an increase of $1.1 trillion from 2021 to 2025.4

What Are the Limitations of Marketing?

Though there are many reasons a company embarks on marketing campaigns, there are several limitations to the industry.

  • Oversaturation. Every company wants customers to buy its product and not its competitors. Therefore, marketing channels can be competitive as companies strive to garner more positive attention and recognition. If too many companies are competing, a customer's attention may be strongly diluted, resulting in any form of advertising not being effective.
  • Devaluation. When a company promotes a price discount or sale, the public may psychologically eventually see that product as worth less in the future. If a campaign is so strong, customers may even wait to purchase a good knowing or remembering what the sale price was from before. For example, some may intentionally hold off buying goods if Black Friday is approaching.
  • No Guaranteed Success. Marketing campaigns may incur upfront expenses that hold no promise of future success. This is also true of market research studies, where time, effort, and resources are poured into a study that may yield no usable or helpful results.
  • Customer Bias. Loyal, long-time customers need no enticing to buy a company's brand or product. However, newer, uninitiated customers may. Marketing naturally is biased towards non-loyal patrons as those who already support the company would be better served by further investment in product improvement.
  • Cost. Marketing campaigns may be expensive. Digital marketing campaigns may be labor-intensive to set up and costly to maintain the scheduling, implementation, and execution of the plan. Don't forget about the headlines that promote Super Bowl commercial expenses in the millions.
  • Economy-Dependent. Marketing is most successful when people have capital to spend. Though marketing can create non-financial benefits such as brand loyalty and product recognition, the ultimate goal is to drive sales. During unfavorable macroeconomic conditions when unemployment is high or recession concerns are elevated, consumers may be less likely to spend no matter how great a marketing campaign may be.

What Is Marketing?

Marketing is a division of a company, product line, individual, or entity that promotes its service. Marketing attempts to encourage market participants to buy their product and commit loyalty to a specific company.

Why Is Marketing So Important?

Marketing is important for a few reasons. First, marketing campaigns may be the first time a customer interacts or is exposed to a company's product. A company has the opportunity to educate, promote, and encourage potential buyers.

Marketing also helps shape the brand image a company wants to convey. For example, an outdoor camping gear company that wants to be known for its rugged, tough goods can embark on specific campaigns that embody these traits and make these emotions memorable to prospective customers.

What Is the Purpose of Marketing?

An important goal of marketing is propelling a company’s growth. This can be seen through attracting and retaining new customers. 

Companies may apply many different marketing strategies to achieve these goals. For instance, matching products with customers' needs could involve personalization, prediction, and essentially knowing the right problem to solve. 

Another strategy is creating value through the customer experience. This is demonstrated through efforts to elevate customer satisfaction and remove any difficulties with the product or service.

What Are the 4 Ps of Marketing?

A commonly used concept in the marketing field, the Four Ps of marketing looks at four key elements of a marketing strategy. The Four Ps consist of product, price, place, and promotion. 

What Are the Types of Marketing?

There are dozens of types of marketing, and the types have proliferated with the introduction and rise of social media, mobile platforms, and technological advancements. Before technology, marketing might have been geared towards mail campaigns, word-of-mouth campaigns, billboards, delivery of sample products, TV commercials, or telemarketing. Now, marketing encompasses social media, targeted ads, e-mail marketing, inbound marketing to attract web traffic, and more.

The Bottom Line

Marketing is an essential part of any business. It allows for a business's products or services to be known to consumers and it helps entice consumers to buy its product over a competitor's. Though marketing costs a significant amount of money, companies create marketing budgets as a part of expenses in the hope that sales and profits will outweigh the marketing costs.


Loss prevention officers are responsible for security and loss prevention in retail spaces, banks and other businesses. Their primary objective is to prevent losses to the business due to theft and other incidents. If you're interested in becoming a loss prevention officer, knowing their responsibilities can help you decide if it's the right choice for you. In this article, we explain what a loss prevention officer is, list loss prevention officer responsibilities, describe the requirements for this role and answer some frequently asked questions.Please note that none of the companies, institutions or organisations mentioned in this article are affiliated with Indeed.

What is a loss prevention officer?

A loss prevention officer is a member of an organisation's security personnel. They prevent theft and other incidents from occurring to minimise the organisation's losses. These officers protect the organisation's property, valuables and people within it. Their work includes both preventing losses and investigative work. When a loss occurs, these officers can investigate security footage and other evidence to determine what happened and the extent of the losses the organisation has incurred.

When you understand first aid, you'll gain the ability to help those in need. Through our first aid certification classes you'll learn how to respond to specific situations, which will help you care for people in crisis as they wait for medical professionals to arrive. This gives them the best opportunity for a positive outcome – and gives you the opportunity to change someone's life for the better.

What is First Aid?

First aid refers to medical attention that is usually administered immediately after the injury occurs and at the location where it occurred. It often consists of a one-time, short-term treatment and requires little technology or training to administer. First aid can include cleaning minor cuts, scrapes, or scratches; treating a minor burn; applying bandages and dressings; the use of non-prescription medicine; draining blisters; removing debris from the eyes; massage; and drinking fluids to relieve heat stress. OSHA's revised recordkeeping rule, which went into effect January 1, 2002, does not require first aid cases to be documented. For example: A worker goes to the first-aid room and has a dressing applied to a minor cut by a registered nurse. Although the registered nurse is a health care professional, the employer does not have to report the accident because the worker simply received first aid. The selected references below provide more information on first aid.

What You'll Learn

Designed to help non-medical professionals provide assistance in times of crisis, our courses allow you to gain an understanding of first aid best practices for a wide range of conditions, including:

In addition, our first aid classes typically cover information on administering CPR and using AEDs – allowing you to become certified in all three (first aid, CPR and AED) in one convenient class.

Why First Aid is Important

  • It Helps You Stay Prepared.
    The goal of first aid is twofold. First, it helps you recognize the signs that someone actually needs help and, second, it prepares you to respond when minutes matter. Remember, an emergency can happen when you least expect it, whether you're at home with your family, at work, at the grocery store, or hiking on a nature trail. While it may be something as simple as properly caring for cuts and scrapes, it can also be a lifesaving tool that keeps someone alive until help arrives. That's why the importance of first aid training should never be overlooked.

  • It Doesn't Take Long to Learn.
    First Aid training can fit into everyone's busy schedule. It only takes a few hours and it can give you the skills and confidence to respond to an emergency, take action, and, in critical situations, even save a life. You'll find classes that are designed for the way you live and learn, with options available on weekdays and weekends in a variety of formats (e.g., in-person, online-only, or blended learning).

  • It Looks Good on a Resume.
    Even if your employer (or potential employer) doesn't require training like CPR, First Aid and others, it still looks great on your resume. By enrolling in these types of classes, it shows that you took the initiative to get valuable, lifesaving instruction. To add it to your resume, just create a “Special Skills” or “Certifications” section and list it under there along with any relevant context. For instance, if you’ve had experience using first aid as a volunteer firefighterlifeguardbabysitter or child caregiver, include that in a brief sentence.

Importance of Entrepreneurship:

  • Creation of Employment- Entrepreneurship generates employment. It provides an entry-level job, required for gaining experience and training for unskilled workers.
  • Innovation- It is the hub of innovation that provides new product ventures, market, technology and quality of goods, etc., and increase the standard of living of people.
  • Impact on Society and Community Development- A society becomes greater if the employment base is large and diversified. It brings about changes in society and promotes facilities like higher expenditure on education, better sanitation, fewer slums, a higher level of homeownership. Therefore, entrepreneurship assists the organisation towards a more stable and high quality of community life.
  • Increase Standard of Living- Entrepreneurship helps to improve the standard of living of a person by increasing the income. The standard of living means, increase in the consumption of various goods and services by a household for a particular period.
  • Supports research and development- New products and services need to be researched and tested before launching in the market. Therefore, an entrepreneur also dispenses finance for research and development with research institutions and universities. This promotes research, general construction, and development in the economy.

What Is Economics?

Economics is a social science that focuses on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The study of economics is primarily concerned with analyzing the choices that individuals, businesses, governments, and nations make to allocate limited resources. Economics has ramifications on a wide range of other fields, including politics, psychology, business, and law.


  • Economics is the study of how people allocate scarce resources for production, distribution, and consumption, both individually and collectively.
  • The field of economics is connected with and has ramifications on many others, such as politics, government, law, and business.
  • The two branches of economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics.
  • Economics focuses on efficiency in production and exchange.
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) are two of the most widely used economic indicators.


Understanding Economics

Assuming humans have unlimited wants within a world of limited means, economists analyze how resources are allocated for production, distribution, and consumption.

The study of microeconomics focuses on the choices of individuals and businesses, and macroeconomics concentrates on the behavior of the economy on an aggregate level.

One of the earliest recorded economists was the 8th-century B.C. Greek farmer and poet Hesiod who wrote that labor, materials, and time needed to be allocated efficiently to overcome scarcity. The publication of Adam Smith's 1776 book An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations sparked the beginning of the current Western contemporary economic theories.1


Microeconomics studies how individual consumers and firms make decisions to allocate resources. Whether a single person, a household, or a business, economists may analyze how these entities respond to changes in price and why they demand what they do at particular price levels.

Microeconomics analyzes how and why goods are valued differently, how individuals make financial decisions, and how they trade, coordinate, and cooperate.

Within the dynamics of supply and demand, the costs of producing goods and services, and how labor is divided and allocated, microeconomics studies how businesses are organized and how individuals approach uncertainty and risk in their decision-making.


Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies the behavior and performance of an economy as a whole. Its primary focus is recurrent economic cycles and broad economic growth and development.

It focuses on foreign trade, government fiscal and monetary policy, unemployment rates, the level of inflation, interest rates, the growth of total production output, and business cycles that result in expansions, booms, recessions, and depressions. 

Using aggregate indicators, economists use macroeconomic models to help formulate economic policies and strategies.

What Is the Role of an Economist?

An economist studies the relationship between a society's resources and its production or output, and their opinions help shape economic policies related to interest rates, tax laws, employment programs, international trade agreements, and corporate strategies.

Economists analyze economic indicators such as gross domestic product and the consumer price index to identify potential trends or make economic forecasts.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 38% of all economists in the United States work for a federal or state agency. Economists are also employed as consultants, professors, by corporations, or as part of economic think tanks.2

What Are Economic Indicators?

Economic indicators detail a country's economic performance. Published periodically by governmental agencies or private organizations, economic indicators often have a considerable effect on stocks, employment, and international markets. They may predict future economic conditions that will move markets and guide investment decisions.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The gross domestic product (GDP) is considered the broadest measure of a country's economic performance. It calculates the total market value of all finished goods and services produced in a country in a given year.

Retail sales

Reported by the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) during the middle of each month, the retail sales report measures the total receipts, or dollar value, of all merchandise sold in stores.5 Sampling retailers across the country acts as a proxy of consumer spending levels. Consumer spending represents more than two-thirds of GDP, proving useful to gauge the economy's general direction.6

Industrial production

The industrial production report, released monthly by the Federal Reserve, reports changes in the production of factories, mines, and utilities in the U.S. One measure included in this report is the capacity utilization rate, which estimates the portion of productive capacity that is being used rather than standing idle in the economy. Capacity utilization in the range of 82% to 85% is considered "tight" and can increase the likelihood of price increases or supply shortages in the near term. Levels below 80% are interpreted as showing "slack" in the economy, which may increase the likelihood of a recession.

Employment Data

The Bureau of Labor Statistics releases employment data in a report called the nonfarm payrolls on the first Friday of each month. Sharp increases in employment indicate prosperous economic growth and potential contractions may be imminent if significant decreases occur. These are generalizations, however, and it is important to consider the current position of the economy.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The Consumer Price Index (CPI), also issued by the BLS, measures the level of retail price changes, and the costs that consumers pay, and is the benchmark for measuring inflation. Using a basket that is representative of the goods and services in the economy, the CPI compares the price changes month after month and year after year. This report is an important economic indicator and its release can increase volatility in equity, fixed income, and forex markets. Greater-than-expected price increases are considered a sign of inflation, which will likely cause the underlying currency to depreciate.

Economic Systems

Five economic systems illustrate historical practices used to allocate resources to meet the needs of the individual and society.


In primitive agrarian societies, individuals produced necessities from building dwellings, growing crops, and hunting game at the household or tribal level.


A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to 15th century, feudalism was defined by the lords who held land and leased it to peasants for production, who received a promise of safety and security from the lord.


With the advent of the industrial revolution, capitalism emerged and is defined as a system of production where business owners organize resources including tools, workers, and raw materials to produce goods for market consumption and earn profits. Supply and demand set prices in markets in a way that can serve the best interests of society. 


Socialism is a form of a cooperative production economy. Economic socialism is a system of production in which there is limited or hybrid private ownership of the means of production. Prices, profits, and losses are not the determining factors used to establish who engages in the production, what to produce and how to produce it.


Communism holds that all economic activity is centralized through the coordination of state-sponsored central planners with common ownership of production and distribution.

Schools of Economic Theory

Many economic theories have evolved as societies and markets have grown and changed. However, three disciplines of economics, neoclassical, Keynesian, and Marxian, have influenced modern society.

The principles of neoclassical economics are often used as a framework to illustrate the virtues of capitalism, including the tendency of market prices to reach equilibrium as the volume of supply and demand changes. The optimal valuation of resources emerges from the forces of individual desire and scarcity.

John Maynard Keynes developed the theory of Keynesian economics during the Great Depression. Arguing against neoclassical theory, Keynes showed that restrained markets and government intervention in markets create a stable and equitable economic system. He advocated for a monetary policy designed to boost demand and investor confidence during economic downturns.

Marxian economics is defined in Karl Marx's work Das Kapital. Marxian economics is a rejection of the classical view of economics, arguing against the idea that the free market, an economic system determined by supply and demand with little or no government control, benefits society. He espoused that capitalism only benefits a select few and that the ruling class becomes richer by extracting value out of cheap labor provided by the working class.

What Is a Command Economy?

A command economy is an economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government. A communist society has a command economy.

What Is Behavioral Economics?

Behavioral economics combines psychology, judgment, decision-making, and economics to understand human behavior. Branches of economic thought continue to grow and change. One such example is the progressive branch of bioeconomics that models economic decisions in terms of managing resources.

Who Has Influenced the Study of Economics in the 21st Century?

Since 2000, several economists have won the Nobel Prize in economics, including David Card for his contributions to labor economics, Angus Deaton for his study of consumption, poverty, and welfare, and Paul Krugman for his analysis of trade patterns.

The Bottom Line

Economics is a branch of the social sciences focused on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Microeconomics is a type of economics that is concerned with the behavior of individual people and businesses, while macroeconomics considers broader trends affecting nations and larger economies. In the U.S., a number of key economic indicators, including GDP and CPI, are important tools for economists to measure trends and make forecasts.


What is office management?

Office management is the art of handling the process of planning, organizing, staffing, communicating, controlling, coordinating, and motivating a group, especially in a workplace setup. The function of office management is provided to efficiently and reasonably achieve business goals while improving the productivity of the team. 

When we are talking about office management, it’s all about the aspects of efficient work performance. To keep it short and simple, just think about these two keywords: efficiency and advantage. When an office is properly managed, success, control, and employee satisfaction comes naturally.

The human resource department should be the first and foremost to know what office management means and how to apply it. In this way, they will be able to dispense the knowledge among all the teams. And so to stifle any confusion, here are the seven major office management functions that every HR personnel should know.

The 7 Key Functions of Office Management

1. Planning

Planning is the act of creating a concrete course for future actions. As the first step in the process, it is more about laying out plans and ideas and delegating them to the employees. This process of office management is created to provide stages or methods for the team to follow to secure consistency and productivity. 

2. Staffing

The HR department plays an important part in this context. Staffing is a function of management that handles the selection, hiring, and training of staff. For this purpose, they determine the number of employees required and their qualifications and experience. They will also conduct the interviews and tests to decide which candidates to hire. Staffing also includes areas such as the promotion and retirement of the employees.

3. Directing

Of course, having well-thought-out plans is one thing — but implementing them is just as important and more crucial. Directing is part of office management and administration, which involves implementation and continued guidance. Continued guidance is necessary to ensure that the processes are consistent and employees are following them. Additionally, it includes systems and procedures in place to handle those who do not follow the processes.

4. Communication 

Clear communication is a staple of every high-functioning operation. It is the key to building good relations within and outside the team. Through effective communication, the staff will understand the tasks and plans, and will therefore allow them to follow the office management plan. If the office manager is unable to communicate the needs of the company, sadly, it will be hard to obtain prime efficiency.

5. Controlling

Controlling refers to the function of office management that ensures that the high-level plans are followed. Keep in mind that controlling is not about micro-managing but leading. The leader must create performance standards where they can compare the actual performance to. This will make detecting anomalies much easier.

6. Coordinating

This can be a tricky part of office management since there’s always the need to coordinate within the team and even other areas of the business. Coordinating is done to ensure that every department is on the same page and are working harmoniously. 

7. Motivating

Motivating may be often overlooked, but it is an integral part of a successful team. Motivation comes in two forms: self-motivation and external motivation. Of course, it is important to ensure that your employees stay motivated. But if they are not self-motivated, the job of the office manager is to externally motivate the employee. By doing so, the office employees will most likely maintain discipline and improve their performance.

1. Principles

Safety is a core value at Stanford and the University is committed to continued advancement of an institutional safety culture with strong programs of personal safety, accident and injury prevention, wellness promotion, and compliance with applicable environmental and health and safety laws and regulations.

Stanford University makes all reasonable efforts to:

  • Promote occupational and personal safety, health and wellness;
  • Protect the health and safety of Stanford University faculty, staff and students;
  • Provide information to faculty, staff, and students about health and safety hazards;
  • Identify and correct health and safety hazards and encourage faculty, staff, and students to report​ potential hazards;
  • Conduct activities in a manner protective of the environment, and inform the Stanford community regarding environmental impacts associated with institutional operations; and
  • Maintain a risk-based emergency management program to reduce the impact of emergency events to the Stanford community.
Return to in page menu

Now in section 2

2. Responsibilities

Adherence to good health and safety practices and compliance with applicable health and safety regulations are a responsibility of all faculty, staff, and students. Line responsibility for good health and safety practice begins with the supervisor in the workplace, laboratory or classroom and proceeds upward through the levels of management. For detailed guidance on individual safety responsibilities under Cal/OSHA, refer to the University’s Illness and Injury Prevention Program (IIPP).

In academic areas, supervisors include faculty/principal investigators, laboratory directors, class instructors, or others having direct supervisory and/or oversight authority. Academic levels of management are the department chairperson or Independent Lab director, dean, the Dean of Research, and the Provost. Administrative levels of management include managers, directors, and vice presidents. Final responsibility for health and safety policy and programs rests with the President of the University.

The Associate Vice Provost for EH&S and the University Committee on Health and Safety are responsible for recommending University-wide health and safety policies to the President.

The Associate Vice Provost for EH&S is responsible for ensuring overall institutional compliance with applicable policies, statutes, and regulations; monitoring the effectiveness of the safety programs; and providing central health and safety services and support to all areas of the University.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 3

A. Supervisory Responsibilities

University supervisors, including faculty supervisors and Principal Investigators (PIs), are responsible for protecting the health and safety of employees, students and visitors working under their direction or supervision. This responsibility entails:

  • Being current with and implementing Stanford University health and safety policies, practices and programs;
  • Ensuring that workplaces, including laboratories, and equipment are safe and well maintained;
  • Ensuring that workplaces or laboratories are in compliance with Stanford policies, programs and practices, and
  • Ensuring that employees, students and visitors under their supervision or within their work areas have been provided with appropriate safety training and information, and adhere to established safety practices and requirements.
Return to in page menu

Now in section 4

B. Managerial Responsibilities

University managers, academic and administrative, are responsible for ensuring that:

  • Individuals under their management have the authority to implement appropriate health and safety policies, practices and programs;
  • Areas under their management have adequate resources for health and safety programs, practices, and equipment; and 
  • Areas under their management are in compliance with Stanford University health and safety policies, practices and programs.
Return to in page menu

Now in section 5

C. Environmental Health and Safety Responsibilities

Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) is responsible for:

  • Reviewing legislation, recommending policies, and monitoring compliance with environmental and health and safety statutes and regulations and University health and safety policies and programs;
  • Developing institutional safety and compliance programs and assisting schools, departments, faculty, and managers with implementation
  • Providing guidance and technical assistance to supervisors and managers in the schools, departments, and other work units in identifying, evaluating, and correcting health and safety hazards;
  • Developing programs for the safe use of hazardous radiological, biological, and chemical substances and lasers;
  • Providing training materials, assistance, and programs in safe work practices;
  • Providing guidance on effective emergency management and business continuity programs, and providing emergency response services for incidents involving hazardous materials;
  • Providing fire prevention, inspection, engineering and systems maintenance services; and
  • Hazardous waste management and disposal services.

While EH&S is responsible for developing and recommending relevant health and safety policies, institutional policy approval rests with other University authorities,(e.g., President, Provost, Vice Provost and Dean of Research, Faculty Senate, University Cabinet, University Committee on Health and Safety, Committee on Research, Administrative Panels for Research Oversight, etc.) depending on the content of the proposed policies.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 6

D. Faculty, Staff, and Student Responsibilities

Faculty, staff and students are responsible for:

  • Keeping themselves informed of conditions affecting their health and safety;
  • Participating in safety training programs as required by Stanford policy and their supervisors and instructors; 
  • Adhering to health and safety practices in their workplace, classroom, laboratory and student campus residences; Advising of or reporting to supervisors, instructors or EH&S potentially unsafe practices or serious hazards in the workplace, classroom or laboratory.
Return to in page menu

Now in section 7

E. Safety Performance

Each individual at Stanford is expected to perform all work safely. Managers and supervisors shall establish and maintain a system of positive reinforcement and escalated discipline to support good health and safety practices. Safety performance shall be a part of every individual’s role and responsibility as well as performance expectation and evaluation.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 8

3. Providing a Safe Workplace

Stanford's program for providing a safe workplace for faculty, staff and students includes: facility design; hazard identification, workplace inspection and corrective action; shutdown of dangerous activities; medical surveillance: and emergency preparedness. In addition to this general institutional health and safety policy, additional hazard specific policies and requirements may apply to different work and learning environments at Stanford and will be found in the Research Policy Handbook and at the EH&S Website.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 9

A. Facility Design

Facilities will be designed in a manner consistent with health and safety regulations and standards of good design. Those University departments charged with primary responsibility for the design, construction, and/or renovation of facilities, together with EH&S shall ensure that there is appropriate health and safety review of facility concepts, designs, and plans.

In case of disagreement between EH&S and the cognizant facilities department, the conflict shall be resolved by the Vice Provost and Dean of Research in consultation with the cognizant vice president or dean and the Provost (or designate). The determination of the Vice Provost and Dean of Research may be stayed by the Associate Vice Provost for EH&S pending a prompt appeal to the President.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 10

B. Hazard Identification and Correction

Stanford University encourages employees and students to report health and safety hazards to their supervisors, managers, or EH&S. Employees and students shall not be discriminated against in any manner for bona fide reporting of health and safety hazards to Stanford or to appropriate governmental agencies. Supervisors shall inform students and employees of this policy and encourage reporting of workplace hazards.

Supervisors, both faculty and staff, shall assure that regular, periodic inspections of workplaces are conducted to identify and evaluate workplace hazards and unsafe work practices.

  • The frequency of inspections should be proportional to the magnitude of risk posed in the particular workplace.
  • Means of correcting discovered hazards and/or protecting individuals from the hazards shall be determined and implemented appropriately.
  • Unsafe conditions which cannot be corrected by the supervisor or manager must be reported to the next higher level of management. Any individual, supervisor or manager who becomes aware of a serious concealed danger to the health or safety of individuals shall report this danger promptly to the Department of EH&S and to the faculty, staff and students who may be affected.
Return to in page menu

Now in section 11

C. Shutdown of Dangerous Activities

The Associate Vice Provost for EH&S has the authority to curtail or shut down any University activity considered to constitute a clear and imminent danger to health or safety. In the event of such curtailment or shutdown, the cognizant dean, director or vice president and the Provost (or designate) shall be immediately notified.

In cases of dispute, an order to curtail or shutdown will remain in effect until the Provost or the Vice Provost and Dean of Research (or their respective designates) determine in writing that the danger has passed or been mitigated or that the order should be rescinded for other reasons.

Should the Associate Vice Provost for EH&S disagree with a determination to restore a curtailed or shutdown activity, the Associate Vice Provost for EH&S may promptly appeal the matter to the President. In the event of an appeal, the order to curtail or shutdown shall be in effect until the President determines otherwise.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 12

D. Providing Medical Surveillance

Stanford University shall evaluate and monitor, through a program of medical surveillance, the health of Stanford University faculty, staff and students who are exposed to certain hazardous materials and situations as defined by law or University policy. Each supervisor is responsible for ensuring that employees and students under their supervision participate in the medical surveillance program as required by University policy. EH&S will monitor medical surveillance program participation. Each University department/school shall administer the program for faculty, staff and students covered by University policy.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 13

E. Emergency Response and Preparedness

EH&S coordinates overall emergency response planning for the institution and provides guidelines for departmental emergency response plans. Every department shall have an individual emergency response plan and shall develop business continuity and contingency plans and implement appropriate mitigation programs to reduce the impact of emergency events.

Schools and departments shall maintain local departmental emergency operations centers and communications capabilities according to guidelines in the campus emergency plan. Multiple departments located within individual buildings will jointly develop comprehensive building-based life safety response plans.

Emergency plans shall include evacuation and assembly procedures, posted evacuation maps, reporting and communication practices, training, and drills.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 14

4. Safety Communication and Training

Safety and compliance required training shall be communicated in a manner readily understandable to faculty, staff and students, in accordance with the communication policy outlined below.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 15

A. Systems of Communication

Managers and supervisors, both faculty and staff, shall establish, implement and maintain a system for communicating with employees and students about health and safety matters. Information should be presented in a manner readily understood by the affected employees and students. Due attention must be paid to levels of literacy and language barriers. Verbal communications should be supplemented with written materials or postings if appropriate. Whenever appropriate, statutes and policies affecting employees and students shall be available in the workplaces.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 16

B. Communication About Hazards

Faculty, staff, and students who may come in contact with hazardous substances or practices either in the workplace or in laboratories shall be provided information concerning the particular hazards which may be posed, and the methods by which they may deal with such hazards in a safe and healthful manner. In areas where hazardous chemicals or physical agents are used, handled, or stored, communication about these hazards shall conform to the Research Policy Handbook EH&S Requirements for laboratory facilities and the Hazard Communication Program for all other campus workplaces.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 17

C. Training

Supervisors, including faculty, shall be experienced, trained or knowledgeable in the safety and health hazards to which employees and students under their immediate direction and control may be exposed, and shall be knowledgeable of current practices and safety requirements in their field.

Faculty, staff and students shall have or be provided the knowledge to protect themselves from hazards in their working and learning environment. Supervisors, both faculty and staff, shall ensure that employees and students have received appropriate training and information regarding:

  • General health and safety practices of the workplace or laboratory, including emergency procedures;
  • Job-specific health and safety practices and hazards;
  • Recognition and assessment of health and safety risks; and,
  • How to minimize risks through sound safety practices and use of protective equipment; and,
  • Awareness of appropriate practices to protect the environment.

Training shall occur when:

  • An employee is hired or student is new to the laboratory;
  • An employee or student is given a new assignment for which training has not previously been received; and
  • New hazards are introduced by new substances, processes or equipment.

Faculty, staff and students should, periodically, be retrained or demonstrate an understanding of current standard safety practices and requirements for their areas.

Return to in page menu

Now in section 18

5. Documentation and Recordkeeping

Documentation and records as required by regulation shall be kept to demonstrate compliance with applicable statutes, regulations and policies. Requirements and procedures for such recordkeeping can be found in the Research Policy Handbook and at the EH&S website.